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Posts Tagged ‘Ranald MacDonald’

Apple Blossom Time, 100 Years Ago

Sunday, May 30th, 2010

~reprinted from Gates Ajar, Spring 1992

Almost (120) years ago, Ranald MacDonald took pen in hand to correct an article in the Spokane (Washington) Review. He sent his correction, however, [not to the Spokane Review but] to his local newspaper, The Kettle Falls Pioneer, where it won front page coverage on May 12, 1892.  This ‘letter to the editor’ revealed something of Ranald’s style (concerned historians will note that Ranald added his own disclaimer.)  The column was headed:  “HISTORIC APPLE TREES, A Few Facts Penned by Mr. Ranald MacDonald”.

Here is a portion of the “offending” story Ranald felt compelled to refute:

“The Washington State Historical Society is doing very valuable work, and has much more to do.  Among other things demanding its attention should be the removal to one of the public parks in Tacoma of those two old historic apple trees now growing at old Fort Nisqually.  Those threes are the first apple trees planted in the northwest, at least north of the Columbia.  On November 1, 1834 it was planted in a hotbed by Archie McDonald. Nicknamed “Sleepy” McDonald, and the following spring the twigs were transplanted to the ground where they now stand at old Fort Nisqually.  McDonald was one of the chief clerks of the Hudson Bay Company, and was sent from Vancouver by the good Dr. McLaughlin to found Fort Nisqually.  In England in 1833 the captain of an English ship was given a grand dinner on the eve of his departure for the wild wilderness of the northwest.  In eating an apple a lady carefully saved its seeds, presented them to the captain, and requested him to have them planted in the new world.  These were the seeds planted at old Fort Nisqually.  The two trees they produced stand about a mile off the main road between Tacoma and Olympia, the location of Nisqually having been changed from its original site …”   ~Spokane Review


And so Ranald wrote:

“OLD FORT COLVILLE

MARCUS P.O., WASH.

EDITOR PIONEER: –The above interesting paragraph, having the ring and spice of romance, I fear will not bear the cold facts of history.  I will be brief:  Mr. Archibald MacDonald, stationed at Fort Langley on the Fraser River, received his parchment or commission while there; was then assigned to Fort Colville; the family, I believe, left Langley in 1833 in a bateau to reach Colville for the second time; coasted down Puget Sound, going ashore every night to camp; in due course arrived at Nisqually and camped on the beach at the mouth of a creek which I suppose to be the Sequalichew; here we laid over, Mr. MacDonald, inspecting the country.  I remember (him) taking me and a younger brother to view the beautiful, park-like country covered with green and luxuriant grasses, and remember him saying is was just the country for cattle and sheep, and pointing to the running stream that could be utilized for milling purposes … Then Mr. MacDonald and the late Sir James Douglas and party was sent to build Fort Nisqually … with a view of making it the headquarters of the future Puget Sound Agricultural Company …

I have never heard Mr. Archie MacDonald called “Sleepy” or nicknamed; if so he must have slept with one eye open, for he was quick to see, act with energy and prompt to execute.  The mistake may arise from the fact that there were three Angus MacDonalds – one was called ‘Sleepy’, one ‘Holey’, and the other ‘Glencoe’ – this I have been credibly informed by satisfactory evidence now living; but this was a long time after the founding of Nisqually, so this Sleepy McDonald could not be connected with the “Historic Apple Trees”.

The first apple trees planted and bearing fruit was at old Fort Vancouver north of the Columbia (river), where the Hudson Bay Company had a large garden under the care and management of a careful and intelligent Scotsman by the name of Mr. Bruce, who sometimes would cut an apple and give the boys a taste …

What I have some doubt is with respect to dates not having the journals by me, but note this from memory.

~RANALD MacDONALD, a Pro-Pioneer”

[Editor’s note:  Although specific details vary, the story of apple seeds traveling from a London dinner party to Fort Vancouver is a well-known story.  Vancouver’s “Old Apple Tree” still stands today and bears fruit, as it has for more than 150 years (more than 170 years to date!), not far from the site of the restored Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River.]

Oldest Apple Tree at Ft Vancouver

The annual Old Apple Tree Festival is typically held on the first Saturday in October from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. at the Old Apple Tree Park, located on Columbia Way, just east of Interstate 5 Bridge. The festival focuses on environmental education and historic preservation with Heritage Tree walks, Historic Clark County tours, Birds of Prey show, scavenger hunts along the waterfront trail, kids’ activities, and much more. As a bonus, the Urban Forestry Commission gives away state-grown apples, as well as tree cuttings from the Old Apple Tree to each visitor.

日本へ最初に行ったアメリカ人は誰?

Friday, April 30th, 2010

アメリカ大陸に最初に足跡を残した日本人は誰?・・・という事は、アメリカ大陸に立った最初の日本人は誰?・・・という質問になる。 多くのお方は土佐藩(今の高知県)出身の中浜 万次郎こと、ジョン・万次郎と答えるであろう。 それは1841年の出来事であった。 しかし、史実はこれを正解としない。 実はその7年前の1834年、愛知県知多郡小野浦から三吉と呼ばれる三人の船乗り(音吉、岩吉、久吉)が今のワシントン州オリンピック半島の海岸、ケープ・アラバに漂着しているのである。

1832年11月3日、三吉たち14人を乗せた千石船、宝順丸は米や陶器を積み込み、目的 地江戸へ向かって伊勢湾の鳥羽を出港した。しかし、その途中遠州灘で暴風雨に遭い、宝順丸の舵が折れ航路コントロールが不可能となる。14ヶ月間と言う長期にわたり太平洋上を漂流の末、宝順丸はやがてケープ・アラバに漂着したのであった。当初14人居た乗り組み員は、途中、飢餓や壊血病で倒れ、生き残ったのは音吉、岩吉、久吉の三人だけになってしまった。三人はそこで捕鯨部族として知られていたマカー・インディアンに救助され今で言う“ホーム・ステイ”を4ヶ月余体験、健康を回復した。その後、三吉達は、コロンビア河向こうのバンクーバーに在る(現在の国立史跡公園)フォート・バンクーバーへ連れて来られ、そこで約13ヶ月間過ごし英語のレッスンを受け、やがて英国経由鎖国令の布かれている日本へ・・・の送還を試みられるのである。【この史実、特に音吉の歩んだ道はこの後意外な展開を遂げる。ご興味をお持ちのお方は角川文庫の三浦綾子著“海嶺”をご一読されたい。】

さて、アメリカへ来た最初の日本人は誰だったかご理解頂いたと思うので、次に逆の質問、所謂、(日本行きを目的とし)日本へ最初に行ったアメリカ人は誰?・・・と、問うて見たい。

sankichi-monument-at-fort-vancouver-copy1853年、時の徳川幕府に「開国!」を迫り黒船を率いて浦賀港へやってきたペリー提督・・・?  答えは「No!」 正解はラナルド・マクドナルド(当時24歳)。 更に、驚く無かれ、彼はオレゴニアンであった。ラナルドは、コロンビア河の河口、アストリアのフォート・ジョージで1824年2月3日、スコットランド人アーチボルド・マクドナルドを父に、コロンビア下流地帯のインディアン、チヌーク族の大酋長コム・コムリの次女コアール・クソアを母として産声を上げた。ラナルドは、少年時代にフォート・バンクーバーに滞在していた日本人、三吉達の瞳、髪の毛、皮膚の色等、インディアンに似ているという話を聞き、(別な説は、少年ラナルドが三吉達を見た・・・とか、三吉達と短期間ではあったが交流の機会があった・・・とも言われているが、その史実は疑わしい)又、インディアン部族の長老間で、先祖達がアジアからアラスカを経てアメリカ大陸へやってきたという言い伝えを耳にした事もあった事から、彼らインディアンと日本人の先祖は同じかもしれない・・・と、少年ラナルドは日本、日本人に対する異常なほどの興味と憧れを抱き始めた。

1847年暮、23歳に成長したラナルドはハワイでアメリカの捕鯨船プリマス号の平船員となり、捕鯨船が世界中から集まっていた日本近海への出港の第一関門をクリアした。その後数ヶ月間、類の無いほどの大漁獲を収めたプリマス号での捕鯨の仕事に汗を流したラナルドは、報酬の代わりに小船と食料、水を事前約束通りエドワード船長から譲り受け、いよいよ単身日本上陸を目指すのであった。 それは1848年、ラナルドが満24歳の時であった。

MacDonald Monument at Nagasaki, Japan

彼は、鎖国令が布かれている日本に上陸するのは、命がけである事は十分承知していた。少しでもその危険性を和らげる為、ラナルドは万国共通の“人情”に訴える作戦に出た。 北海道利尻島の海辺の村落、野塚に近付いた海上で遭難を偽装したのだ。その作戦は見事功を奏し、案の定、海岸に居たアイヌ達が2艘の小船で救助に来てくれた。

こうして、オレゴニアンのラナルド・マクドナルドは鎖国中の日本への入国を果たした。だが、オランダ人と中国人、それも長崎の出島以外では交易を認めていなかった徳川幕府としては、ラナルドを密入国者として捕らえ約3ヶ月間掛け、船で身柄を長崎へ送り、そこの大悲庵と称する座敷牢に軟禁した。しかし、ラナルドの日本人や日本文化に対する尊敬の念と日本語を学ぼうとする誠意溢れる人柄が役人に認められ、出島のオランダ語専門通詞達14人が、大悲庵に通うようになった。そこで通詞達は彼に日本語を教え、彼から英語を学ぶ・・・という日常が始まったのだ。これは、ラナルドがアメリカへ強制送還されるまでの約7ヶ月間続いた。

これが日本での英語教育のはじまり・・・であり、現在ではオレゴン出身のラナルド・マクドナルドが“日本で最初の英語教師”として位置付けされている。 更に、その5年後、1853年にペリー提督が黒船を率いて徳川幕府に開国を迫る交渉に来る訳だが、その時日本側の首席通訳の大任を果たした森山 栄之助は、マクドナルドの大悲庵に通った14人の通詞の一人であった。

English Language textbooks from Japan

【 このマクドナルドに関する史実は、近年日本の中学及び高校の英語教科書でも教材の一部として取り上げられているばかりか、日・英両語で幾つかの本が出版されている。 その中で最も代表的な日本語の本は、文春文庫の吉村 昭著“海の祭礼”であろう。】

ここにラナルドが日本(大悲庵)で密かに纏めた和英語彙集の中から、幾つかを紹介する。ここで留意しなくてはならないのは、マクドナルドは、彼が耳にした日本語を英語の言葉の発音に置き換えて彼なりにメモした事である。所謂、ローマ字発音にこだわると、マクドナルドが意図した発音と異なるケースが多々あるので気を付けなければならない。 例えば、meme であるが、ローマ字発音ではメメとなる。しかし、マクドナルドが意図した発音はミミ〔耳〕なのである。英語でme〔私〕という単語があるが、マクドナルドが聞いた日本語はミミ、即ちme ミーを二度繰り返したmeme ミーミー(耳) であった。Keno も同様に、ローマ字発音ではヶノであるが、マクドナルドが聴いた言葉は、キノ、すなわちキノー(昨日)だったのである。 基本的に、eの発音は、エ ではなく英語ではイー。 アルファベットは A・B・C・D・E・F・・・と続くが、これは、エイ・ビー・シー・ディー・イー・エフ・・・と、発音するのはご存知の通り。

catana – 刀: sword

meme – 耳: ear

oy – 甥: nephew

nom – 飲む: drink

omereto – おめでとう: congratulations

beging – 美人: beautiful lady

sheo – 塩: salt

keno – きのう: yesterday

emoto – 妹: younger sister

sinara – さいなら: good bye

rogin – 老人: old man

eye-nose – アイヌ: Ainu

oboyewarii – 覚え悪りい: forgetful (bad at remembering)

この他にも簡単な日本語(長崎弁)会話を含んだマクドナルド自身による手書きの語彙集の現物は、カナダのヴィクトリアB.C.図書館に保管されている。

マクドナルド友の会* 会長     谷田部 勝

*マクドナルド友の会は、より多くの方々にラナルド・マクドナルドに関する素晴らしい史実を知ってもらおうとの主旨から、今から21年前、当時ポートランド商工会理事であり、エプソン・ポートランド社社長であった故冨田 正勝氏等が中心となり、クラッツァップ郡歴史協会の下部組織として創設されたものである。

My Own Trip to Rishiri

Sunday, January 31st, 2010

by FOM Chairman Mas Yatabe

After visiting Nagasaki in January of 2009 – where Ranald MacDonald first taught English – I had a strong urge to make my own pilgrimage to Rishiri Island, to the spot where Ranald first set foot on the soil of Japan. When an opportunity presented itself during a business trip in July, I felt that I could afford to take a side-visit to Rishiri, though I knew the time I could spend there would be very limited.

I left my hometown of Tatebayashi in Gunma Prefecture around 7:30 in the morning and after a couple of transfers I got on the Tohoku Line of the Shinkansen [bullet train] in Tokyo – which rather quickly arrived at its northernmost stop in Hachinohe, Aomori Prefecture. However, it was almost 7:30 pm by the time I finally arrived in Sapporo where I was met by my long-time friend, Katsu Yamazaki [one of the FOM’s charter members. Mr. Yamazaki became a member of the Friends of MacDonald when he was assigned to lead the Portland office of Itogumi Corporation of Hokkaido back in the 1980’s.] Even though the hour was late, because my time was short Mr. Yamazaki suggested that we drive north as far as we could that same night.

After driving several hours in the rain along a dark two-lane road, it must have been around midnight that we arrived at a little town called Teshio, and we were on the road again by 6:00 am the next morning, heading toward our destination of Wakkanai. [An interesting side note is that Wakkanai and Portland are on the same latitude.] We arrived early enough that we actually had to wait for the ferry, which was to leave the Port of Wakkanai at 7:50 am for Oshidomari, the only Port on Rishiri Island. We arrived at Oshidomari around 9:30 am, which gave us just about an hour and a half to explore before we had to catch our return ferry at 11 am. A very tight schedule, indeed!

rishiri-map

Map of Rishiri Island. Looks like a cartoon but it’s not.

Fortunately, Mr. Eiji Nishiya, Curator of the Rishiri Museum and Secretary of FOM Japan, would be waiting for us at the Port of Oshidomari, and was ready to take us to the monument commemorating the spot where MacDonald first landed on Rishiri Island. As we were approaching the island I was thrilled to see Mt. Rishiri appearing and disappearing in the clouds – the very same mountain peak that MacDonald saw almost exactly 171 years ago as he made his approach to Rishiri Island in July of 1848. I have heard it said that MacDonald had perhaps set his course for Rishiri Island [rather than the closer mainland] after sighting Mt. Rishiri, because its appearance reminded him of Mt. Hood – the mountain of his childhood when he was schooled at Fort Vancouver, WA. After viewing both peaks with my own eyes I could certainly understand his nostalgia.

mt-rishiri-july-2009

Mt. Rishiri, July 2009 ~~~  photo taken by Eiji Nishiya

I would have loved to have been able to stay for a few hours and explore before returning on the afternoon ferry, but since my schedule was so tight – and in order to return to Sapporo that same evening – we had no choice but to catch the 11:00 am ferry back to Wakkanai. It was a good thing that MacDonald’s monument stood only a few miles from the Port, so Mr. Nishiya was able to get us back to the ferry in short order.

nishiya-and-mas-at-monumentWith Mr. Nishiya at the MacDonald “landing site” monument

After taking a couple of photos at the stone monument, Mr. Nishiya drove us a few minutes down the road to a rocky cove where a couple of small boats were beached. It is Mr. Nishiya’s belief that this beach was actually the spot where MacDonald first set foot on Rishiri Island [as opposed to where the monument sits.] Though we were pressed for time, I wanted to put my feet on the rocks where MacDonald stood, so while Mr. Nishiya and Mr. Yamazaki watched and waited up on the hill, I clambered down to the beach, and, like MacDonald, I slipped and fell [and dislocated a finger, incidentally.] As I was climbing back up the hill, I remembered how Ranald had a problem “ascending the steep, rocky bank” in his ‘new’ zori sandals.

the-beach-where-macdonald-landed

The beach where MacDonald landed?

I can now say that I have stood in many of the key places that MacDonald himself stood – Astoria, Oregon, Ft. Vancouver, WA, Lahaina, Maui and now Rishiri and Nagasaki, Japan. I can better understand and realize what a significant impact this man had on US-Japan relations. If it were happening today, Ronald MacDonald would be a celebrity/hero and perhaps his photo would be on the cover of TIME magazine. Sadly, though, more people equate the name ‘Ranald MacDonald’ with hamburgers than History. Collectively, we at “Friends of MacDonald” must continue to work hard to educate people about the important historical significance of the Fearless Adventurer known as Ranald MacDonald.

rishiri-beach-rock-2009

**

January 2010

Saturday, January 30th, 2010

Friends of MacDonald extends its congratulations to Fred Schodt ~~~~~


FOM extends its congratulations to Fred Schodt, whom we agreed most deservedly received a prestigious award from the Japanese government in 2009.  The presentation of the “Order of the Rising Sun with Gold Ray Rosette” was held in San Francisco at the Official Residence of the Japanese Consul General, Mr. Yasumasa Nagamine. The award is given on behalf of the Japanese government, and signed by the Prime Minister and emperor.  Read Fred’s speech here.

Photobucket

* * * * * * * * *

FOM Donates 30 Books Unsung Hero: Ranald MacDonald Story to Elementary School Children of Nagasaki

As of this writing, there are over 80 elementary schools in Nagasaki, Japan.  To celebrate the Nagasaki-East Rotary Club’s 40th anniversary, the Rotary Club sponsored a gathering of elementary school children called “Let’s Talk English” on Dec. 19, 2009.  The coordinator was Mr. Minoru Maeda, a former English teacher and a current International Member of Friends of MacDonald.  It was Mr. Maeda’s idea for each participating student to receive a copy of the book Unsung Hero: Ranald MacDonald Story, a biography of Ranald MacDonald written for children by Atsumi Tsukimori McCauley of Spokane, WA and illustrated by Mariko King.  [Friends of MacDonald would like to thank Ms. McCauley for selling us copies of her books at cost.]

* * * * * * * *

Mihama Delegation Visits Makah Nation

Mr. Koichi Saito and his wife, Yuriko, led a “Goodwill” Friendship delegation of 28 Otokichi-no-kai members to the annual Makah Day Festival in Neah Bay, WA on August 29, 2009.  Mr. Saito is the former Mayor of Mihama (Aichi Prefecture).

2009-08-otokichi-tour-hojun-maru


The day began with a brief visit to the Makah Cultural Research Center in Neah Bay – which is recognized as the nation’s finest tribal museum – and the group was able to enjoy the replica of the Hojun-maru, donated by Hyogo Scout Council, Boy Scout of Nippon in 2006. It was the Makah ancestors who saved the lives of three sailors from Mihama who were washed ashore on Cape Alava in the disabled ship named Hojun-maru in the winter of 1834. The delegation from Mihama came to express their appreciation to the present day people of the Makah Nation for saving the three sailors from their hometown and to exchange goodwill with them by not only observing the parade, canoe racing, dancing, etc., but also actively participating in their day-long “Makah Day” festivities – the biggest annual event for the people of the Makah Indian Nation.

2009-08-otokichi-tour-gift-exchangeThe delegation was first treated to a traditional Baked Salmon lunch near the center stage of the festivities before Mayor Saito and Michael Lawrence, Chairman of the Makah Tribal Council, exchanged gifts. Some of the Mihama delegation members could not help but envy the scene where more than one hundred little boys and girls under the age of 12 dressed in their traditional costumes and danced proudly on the outdoor center stage. It was a beautiful sight that sent a message to everyone that the Makah Nation will continue for many more generations to come.

makah-childrens-dance

The next day the entire group from Mihama hiked through the Olympic National Forest for few miles to reach the shores of Cape Alava where the ancestors of the present-day Makah saved the three shipwrecked sailors, Otokichi, Iwakichi and Kyukichi in 1834.  Mayor Saito talked about how hard it must have been for the three sailors in the frigid weather, surrounded by strangers who wore ‘odd’ clothing and spoke an unfamiliar language. It was noted and stressed by Mayor Saito that the three sailors were able to regain their health under the care of Makah people and eventually they were able to sail to England.

What the Sankichi experienced with the Makah people then was what we call these days a true “home stay”. “We must not forget that!” former Mayor Saito stated – and everyone heartily agreed.

otokichi-tour-at-cape-alava-2009_0

~ ~ ~ ~ ~


Membership

Friday, January 1st, 2010

Through your memberships and/or donations you contribute to the building of ties between American and Japanese citizens who have an interest in history, education and people-to-people exchange. Recent membership activities have included historical reenactments, tours of historical sites and exchanges between scholars, historians and writers.

FOM, through the story of Ranald MacDonald, encourages American students of Japanese and Japanese learners of English to engage in the adventure of cultural exchange. Foreign language and cultural studies enrich the citizens of both countries and further mutual understanding between peoples.

FOM provides a window to learning about a unique trans-pacific heritage by conducting lectures and seminar programs, exhibits at public libraries and museums, and participation in ongoing efforts to interpret and preserve the history of the Pacific Northwest.

We invite you to join us! Establish your new annual membership, gift membership or donation in the appropriate category:

Family or Individual Membership [$15.00 annual]
International Family or Individual Membership [$20.00 annual]
Corporate Membership [$100.00 annual]

Please contact:

Friends of MacDonald
c/o Clatsop County Historical Society
P.O. Box 88
Astoria, OR 97103

Or

amm@friendsofmacdonald.com

Gates Ajar – Spring 2009

Saturday, March 21st, 2009

A Pilgrimage to Nagasaki to Meet Obama-san

January 20, 2009 was indeed an historic day, not only for Americans, but also for many people all over the world.  On that day a “New Era” started with the inauguration of the new President of the United States of America, Barack Obama, in Washington D.C.  But where was I on that day?  I was sitting next to another Mr. Obama at a dining table in a Chinese Restaurant in the ANA Nagasaki Hotel in Japan. This white-haired gentleman – about 40 year’s Barack Obama’s senior – was Dr. Masami Obama (83), a gynecologist and obstetrician of Nagasaki City in Japan. Perhaps I need to, 1) introduce who this Japanese Obama-san is, and, 2) explain why I was meeting with him in Nagasaki on January 20, 2009.

Dr. Obama, Mas Yatabe, Mr. Maeda

[left to right: Dr. Obama, Mas Yatabe, Mr. Minoru Maeda]

Dr. Obama has been an active Rotarian for many years and was president of Rotary Club Nagasaki South Chapter in 1988. He was the first Chairman of FOM Nagasaki as well, which was formed on March 6, 1998 [FOM in America’s official organization date was May 20, 1988].  Dr. Obama was the force behind the effort to erect the impressive granite monument of Ranald MacDonald not too far from Dejima in Nagasaki in 1994 as the commemoration of their 30th anniversary of the Chapter.

As I stood across from Ranald MacDonald’s monument in front of this rather large, well-fenced house where the make-shift prison “Daihian” used to be [the so-called jail house “Daihian” stood less than a 10-minute walk from Dejima Island on the way to Matsunomori Shrine near the famous Great Suwa Jinja],  I could not help but imagine Moriyama Einosuke [who would later become chief interpreter for the Tokugawa Shogunate] and 13 other native-Japanese Dutch/Japanese interpreters walking into the house to take English lessons from a native English speaker for the first time in Japanese history. What a significant event that was! The year was 1848 [a full 5 years before Commodore Perry of the East India Fleet of America came to the Uraga port with 4 black ships with a demand that Japan open its doors to American vessels] and a native Oregonian, Ranald MacDonald, was the teacher. Many historians, including Mr. Akira Yoshimura, the author of “Umi-no-Sairei” [Festival of the Sea)] believe the English lessons at Daihian influenced the outcome of the negotiations between the Tokugawa Shogunate and Commodore Perry of the United States of America, which took place several years later. The ability of the native Japanese interpreters to understand and speak English and their knowledge of the current events of the world impressed the American negotiators and raised their level of respect for the Japanese negotiators.

Along my journey to Nagasaki to meet with Dr. Obama and visit the Ranald MacDonald Monument, I met several other remarkable Friends of MacDonald in Japan, and I would like to introduce them to our members (in no particular order):

Mr. Yuji Aisaka of Kyoto is an ex-English teacher and an absolutely amazing person.  Mr. Aisaka was present at the dedication ceremony of Ranald MacDonald’s birth place monument in Astoria in 1988. He has also visited MacDonald’s grave in Toroda, Washington. He attended and observed the Shinto-style dedication ceremony of the Monument of Ranald MacDonald in Nagasaki in 1994.  Moreover, Mr. Aisaka searched out and visited the house where Ranald MacDonald’s father, Archibald McDonald, lived in Scotland!  Mr. Aisaka is perhaps the most knowledgeable and enthusiastic friend of MacDonald around. He has given me books, newspaper clippings, a DVD, a video, etc., all related to MacDonald – and even reference material of Otokichi of Mihama. He says he is in love with the Columbia River – and I believe him!

Mr. Tetsuya Sano of Kobe, a former Hyogo State Representative and one of the Executives of the Hyogo Scouts Association was a leader of the Hyogo Boy Scouts when they erected the Sankichi “Friendship” monument at Fort Vancouver in Washington State in 1989. He and I traveled together with Mayor Koichi Saito and 107 citizens of Mihama in 1997 to the Makah Indian Reservation at Neah Bay, Washington, to follow in the footsteps of Sankichi in the Pacific Northwest.  Mr. Sano presented me with a very interesting book written by the late Akira Yoshimura who authored a book about Ranald MacDonald’s venture into Japan called “Umi no Sairei” [Festival of the Sea]. The book I was given included the episodes behind the book and the research journals of the book Umi no Sairei.

Mr. Minoru Maeda, is a retired English teacher who lives in Nagasaki. Mr. Maeda was at the dinner with Dr. Obama on January 20th and he was the gentleman who kindly guided me around in Nagasaki to MacDonald’s monument, the historic Dejima, the China town and to the splendid Nagasaki Museum of History and Culture.  Mr. Maeda said that in 1988 he was inspired by an article about MacDonald written by Richard Reed of The Oregonian, who was at that time a staff writer for the Daily Yomiuri newspaper.   Mr. Maeda holds a Masters degree from University of Oregon and lived in the Eugene area with his wife and children for 2 and a half years in the 1980s and has many fond memories of Oregon.

Ms. Maiko Midorikawa had just returned from her honeymoon in Tahiti when I met her in Yokohama.  Maiko-san was the ‘go-between’ between myself and Dr. Obama prior to my visit to Nagasaki. She is a graduate of Nagasaki University and thoroughly enjoyed the 3 months she spent a short while ago in the Portland area as a Nagasaki Rotary Club exchange student.

A little more on  Dr. Masami Obama (83), the head of Obama Clinic, who is a true gentleman. He is quite active not only in his profession, but in Rotary club and other civic activities as well. I heard he is an avid golfer who just missed shooting his age by 1 stroke last year. I would like Dr. Obama to come and visit us and enjoy golfing in the Pacific Northwest in the near future.

Mr. Motohisa Shiota of Nagasaki, is another MacDonald enthusiast who was originally scheduled to be at the dinner with Dr. Obama and myself on January 20th, but his health did not allow him to come that day.  I hope he is feeling better by now and that I can meet him here or in Japan some day.

Mr. Eiji Nishiya, is an Executive Director of FOM, Hokkaido. I was only able to speak with Mr. Nishiya on the phone while I was in Japan, but on my next trip to Japan, I am hoping to visit him in Rishiri, Hokkaido and to see the monument that stands near the beach where young MacDonald set foot on Japanese soil for the first time in 1848.

Ms. Yumiko Kawamoto of Tokyo, a noted scholar of not only MacDonald, but of all the historical figures and events leading up to the closure of Tokugawa Shogunate era.

I saw Ms. Kawamoto in November, 2008, but regretfully, we were not able to get together this past January.  However, her advice on the phone prior to my pilgrimage to Nagasaki was invaluable.  Ms. Kawamura was a guest speaker at the Oregon Historical Society in Portland in 2004 along with Frederik L. Schodt who authored a book of Ranald MacDonald called “Native American in the Land of the Shogun”.

I might add that during my journey to Nagasaki I was able to recruit two gentlemen to join us as “International members” of our own FOM. They are Mr. Yoshio Kojima and Mr. Fuminori Marumoto. Mr. Kojima, a graduate of Portland State University in the early1970’s, is a retired English teacher living in Tatebayashi, Gunma.  Mr. Marumoto is president of Kumamoto Kenmin Department Store Ltd. and visited Portland twice in 2007. Kumamoto being not too far from Nagasaki, Mr. Marumoto was quite eager to learn more about Ranald MacDonald.

The most regrettable and truly disappointing thing during my trip to Nagasaki was during my visit to the Nagasaki Museum of History and Culture. In this new, $86 million museum [which was completed in 2005] – a wonderful and first class museum by any definition – nowhere did I find even a single mention of “Ranald MacDonald”.  My feelings of disappointment in the Museum’s presentation [or lack thereof] were compounded when I had the opportunity to view a video of the dedication ceremony of the MacDonald monument in 1994 [given to me by Mr. Aisaka after I came back to Portland.]  The dedication ceremony was attended by many of the local government, educational and civic leaders of the Nagasaki area then. Even the Honorable Consul Donald Y. Yamamoto from the US Consulate in Fukuoka was there to give a congratulatory speech – because Ranald MacDonald was a significant figure in the early days of the US-Japan relationship.  How unfortunate that MacDonald’s contribution is completely overlooked by the Museum of History and Culture – a perfect stage to preserve the story of the first native-English-speaking English teacher to Japan if there ever was one.

The closest thing to any reference that the museum had was “… in 1858, the first English School was opened …”  But that event was a full 10 years after Ranald MacDonald was brought to [and subsequently left] Nagasaki!  I sincerely hope that Dr. Obama and other MacDonald enthusiasts can do something about this gaping hole.  My understanding is that the Tokugawa Shogunate had given official permission to have such a class at Daihian in Nagasaki.  It should at least be mentioned somewhere within the museum that in 1848, Ranald MacDonald of Oregon Territory taught the first English to the 14 professional Dutch/Japanese interpreters of Dejima.

I must say that the time I had allocated to spend in Nagasaki on this trip was far too short. My original intention was to meet with and pay my respect to Dr. Obama and to see the Ranald MacDonald Monument and then turn around and go back to Tokyo. I will know better the next time, for sure.

Gates Ajar — Fall 1998

Tuesday, October 6th, 1998

150th Anniversary of MacDonald’s Trip to Japan Celebrated in 1998 — FOM Members Tour Japan in September

1998 has been an active year for Friends of MacDonald and one that was full of events including Ranald MacDonald’s birthday luncheon held in Astoria on February 3rd., an educational outreach at the Japan-America Society of Oregon’s “Glimpse of Japan Workshop” in May, a sailing adventure and historical reenactment on board Lady Washington in June, and a members’ tour of Japan in September.

These highlights – among a calendar of conferences, lecture programs and book presentations – provide more news than can be fully told in this newsletter.  So we hope that readers will come to FOM events planned for 1999 and take part of the 150th Anniversary year of Ranald MacDonald’s stay in Japan.

In September a delegation of five FOM USA members set foot on Rishiri Island to view the place where Ranald MacDonald set foot in Japan as an intentional castaway in 1848.  The tour was organized by Mr. Ken Nakano who led the 1998 adventure from Hokkaido to Nagasaki in the footsteps of MacDonald.

Participants included: Atsumi Tsukimori of Spokane, Fred Schodt of San Francisco, Massie Tomita and May Namba of Seattle, and FOM tour adviser and tour leader Ken Nakano.  FOM is especially grateful to Ken for his efforts at organizing a most successful trip to Japan.

FOM is also deeply grateful for the warm welcome our members received from so many friends during their tour of Japan.  For a first-hand account of the trip see the story by Atsumi Tsukimori inside this newsletter.

*****

MacDonald’s Castaway Arrival Reenacted on Board Lady Washington on 150th Anniversary

On June 27th, 1848, as the whaling ship Plymouth lay off the coast of Hokkaido, Japan, a young adventurer named Ranald MacDonald launched a small boat from the ship and sailed toward Japan.  He intended to arrive as a castaway in order to enter a feudal kingdom where no foreigners were allowed and foreign trade was outlawed by the Tokugawa Shogun.  But MacDonald was convinced that the Japanese people would welcome him and so he equipped his boat “Little Plymouth” with provisions for thirty days and carried books for purpose of teaching the Japanese about the world from which he came. . . 150 years later, on June 27, 1998, the scene was reenacted for members of FOM and passengers on the Lady Washington during the Saturday afternoon sail on Gray’s Harbor from Westport, Washington.  Young Ranald MacDonald was portrayed by Captain Les Bolton, Executive Director of Grays Harbor Historical Seaport.  Dressed in 19th century sea-faring attire, the bold adventurer climbed into the small boat “Little Plymouth” and rowed off for “Japan”.  Then he rocked his boat and took on water so as to appear as a castaway as MacDonald actually did 150 years ago.

Departing from historical accuracy at the end of the day, Captain Bolton rejoined the ship to greet guests such as Consul Rikio Minamiyama and family from the Consulate General of Japan Seattle Office, Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Berney from Astoria and Friends of MacDonald Chairman Jim Mockford with Cheryl and Jenny Mockford, too.  A full charter of ship passengers joined in on the fun.

*****

JASO Glimpse of Japan Workshop

On May 1, 1998 the Japan America Society of Oregon (JASO) organized its Glimpse of Japan Workshop at the World Trade Center in Portland.  FOM Chairman Jim Mockford presented “The Adventures of Ranald MacDonald” as one of the many workshops that students and teachers attended during the day.  Because a large number of participants were Japanese language students, the presentation included an exploration of Ranald MacDonald’s study of Japanese.  FOM has a copy of Kenji Sonoda’s publication , “Ranald MacDonald’s Glossary of English and Japanese Words” which was utilized as a resource for the Glimpse of Japan Workshop.

The annual event is attended by hundreds of students in the Portland area.  Friends of MacDonald founder Mas Tomita enjoyed presenting the story of Ranald MacDonald at this event in 1994 and FOM was delighted to continue to participate in this informative and important educational program.

*****

ASPAC Conference

“Bridges:  Early Ties Between Japan and the United States” was the title of a panel presentation by FOM members at the ASPAC ’98 Conference held at Whitman College in Walla Walla, Washington in June 1988.  ASPAC is the Asian Studies on the Pacific Coast chapter of the Association of Asian Studies and the FOM panel was chaired by Dr. Stephan Kohl, Professor of Japanese Literature at the University of Oregon.  FOM Chairman Jim Mockford discussed his paper, “Maritime Explorations of the Coast of Japan”, and was followed by Peter Morris who presented “MacDonald, The Intentional Castaway”.  Dr. Kohl described the story of Japanese castaways whose adventure took place in 1815.

*****

NASOH Conference, Vancouver Heritage Lecture,

WSU-Nishinomiya Japanese Educators Program

The North American Society for Oceanic History (NASOH) invited FOM Chairman Jim Mockford to present his paper “Maritime Exploration of the Coast of Japan in the Late 18th Century” at the NASOH ’98 Conference held at the San Diego Maritime Museum in April.  Mockford’s lecture was adapted to include the story of Ranald MacDonald’s Adventure in Japan.  A presentation copy of Ranald MacDonald’s biography was presented to the Naval Historical Center.  In September Mockford gave a lecture to the Vancouver heritage Program at the historic Marshall House on Officer’s Row, Vancouver, Washington. MacDonald was one of the first six students at the Fort Vancouver school in 1834.

In October Washington State University-Vancouver Branch Campus hosted educators from Nishinomiya, Japan.  Mockford told Ranald MacDonald’s story in Japanese and accompanied the teachers to Fort Vancouver where they visited the Japanese castaway’s monument and toured the site where young Ranald MacDonald attended school.  Only two months after MacDonald left for Canada in the spring of 1834 the three Japanese castaways arrived at the fort and attended school.  It is said that their story influenced Ranald MacDonald to become a castaway in Japan.

fort-vancouver-1854-fsdm2

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ATSUMI’S JAPAN TRIP REPORT~Participating in the Ranald MacDonald 150th Anniversary Tour

Ever since I read an article about “Explorer’s Smile Led to Japan Trade”  in the local newspapers about five years ago, I was charmed by Ranald MacDonald.  I visited Toroda, Washington right away (MacDonald’s grave site) and I have dreamed about a possible trip to see the historical sites which mark his legacy.  This September, the dream came true.

This September I was lucky enough to be included in the 150th Anniversary trip to Japan organized by Ken Nakano and completed the two-week visit with wonderful memories and great satisfaction.  Traveling from the northern tip of Hokkaido where Ranald MacDonald first landed to the southern tip of Kyushu where he spent most of his time teaching English was not an easy task.  There was one ferry boat ride, one local airplane flight, many bullet train rides, not to mention two underground tunnels.  It was a miracle to accomplish so much in so little time – despite the Northwest Airlines strike!  I want to thank Ken Nakano for organizing and working hard through the entire trip.

There were four heart-warming meetings with Japan’s MacDonald Society in Sapporo, Rishiri, Tokyo and Nagasaki, and three other just as wonderful meetings including one organized by the Japan-America Society of Hakodate, one in Matsumae with Matsumae towns people, and another in the town of Mihama, Aichi, where the Japanese castaway Otokichi is remembered today.  Our group of five, Ken Nakano and Massie Tomita, May Namba, Fred Schodt, and myself, felt as though we had known our Japanese hosts our whole lives.

We visited the actual landing site at Rishiri Island and then saw the town of Era in Matsumae where Ranald MacDonald spent 22 days before he was shipped to Nagasaki.  Then we went to Nagasaki to see the spot where he lived for seven months and taught English.  We also visited Ranald MacDonald’s original student Moriyama’s grave in Nagasaki.  There are two other of Moriyama’s graves in Tokyo – one is “owned” by Moriyama’s son from his second marriage and this one now keeps Moriyama’s bones; the other is “owned” by Moriyama’s daughter from his first marriage.  We visited all three and dedicated flowers.  In Tokyo we paid a courtesy visit to the American Ambassador to Japan, The Hon. Tom Foley, and the Canadian Embassy.  Then we attended a meeting with Tokyo Friends of MacDonald group including Torao Tomita and Akira Yoshimura.

In those two weeks in September  I went to so many places and met so many wonderful people.  O learned a lot about true friendship and I cried a lot when I departed from each place.  I thank all the people I met who also love Ranald MacDonald, and Ken Nakano who made this dream trip come true.  ~ Atsumi Tsukimori McCauley

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Gates Ajar – March 1998

Friday, March 20th, 1998

150th ANNIVERSARY RANALD MacDONALD TOUR OF JAPAN

Friends of MacDonald in Japan are organizing to host an unforgettable tour of Japan to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Ranald’s arrival in 1848.  Unlike commercial travel packages, this event avoids luxury hotels and full-course dining.  We can only promise that you’ll see more than MacDonald did in his travels in Japan, and know that the friendly faces you meet will keep their heads.  FOM member Ken Nakano had built the following two-week itinerary which accommodates you if one week is all the time you can allow.

9/10     Leave Seattle on NWA.  Cross International Dateline.

9/11     Fly from Kansai Airport on ANA to Sapporo

9/12     Free day in Sapporo to pamper your jet lag.

9/13     Sapporo bus tour.  Party with local FOM members.  All night train ride (sleeper available at additional cost) to Wakkanai (NW tip of Hokkaido).

9/14     Boat trip from Wakkanai to Rishiri Island, where MacDonald first made contact with Japanese people.  Tour the island and party with local FOM group.

9/15     Return to Sapporo by boat and train.

9/16     1-week option travelers return to Seattle; 2-week travelers take train to Hakodate.

9/17     Ride bus or rental car for trip to Matsumae where MacDonald was kept for several weeks.  Return to Hakodate.

9/18     Take train to Tokyo.  Party with local FOM group.

9/19     Free morning.  See Moriyama’s gravestone.  If lucky, meet briefly with Ambassador Tom Foley.  Stay second night in Tokyo.

9/20     Short train trip to Mihama, home port of the three Kichi sailors who were rescued by Hudson’s Bay Company and learned English at Ft. Vancouver.  Spend night in Japanese style inn.

9/21     Take train to Nagasaki.  Party with local FOM group.

9/22     Tour Nagasaki and stay second night.

9/23     Take train to Kansai airport and return to Seattle.  Those who wish may stay in Japan longer and return by themselves.

HIGHLIGHTS:

~ Parties with local FOM groups.  If you’ve never been a VIP before, here’s your chance!

~ Sapporo is sister-city with Portland, OR.  It is Rishiri Island’s “county seat”.

~ Rishiri Island is a jewel.  Two fishing villages share their pride in MacDonald’s story.  You’ll see an impressive stone monument near Ranald’s landing place, and displays in the local museum, whose director, Eiji Nishiya, edits an FOM newsletter in Japan.

~ Matsumae;  another fishing village.  If you don’t see it now, chances are slim that you ever will, for, like Rishiri Island, it is off the beaten path.

~ Tokyo.  Seeing the gravestone of Ranald’s favorite student, Moriyama, is a thrill.  The hoped-for greetings from Ambassador Foley is an important symbolic event.  Thanks to our Spokane members for the idea!

~  Mihama is well-known to our tour-organizer, Ken Nakano.  He has worked closely with them in his projects of placing the monument to the three Kichi’s as Ft. Vancouver and establishing a relationship with the Washington cost Indians.

~ Nagasaki, where Ranald taught English, is well aware of his story.  The original documents are in the Prefectural Library.  The Nagasaki South Rotary Club recently erected a monument on the street in front of the house where Ranald’s hermitage was.  You will see it.

As for cost, Ken says this is a low-budget tour.  Round trip air to Japan is about $800.  Utilize Japanese rail pass.  Stay in business hotels near rail stations for $60 to $80 per day, avoid expensive Japanese meals.  It is too soon to know the fare for air travel within Japan because of fluctuating exchange rates.

At present we think the group will be an intimate seven to twelve people.  If you are the least bit interested in going, please contact Ken Nakano for more details.  He will tell you when and how to register.

*****

AKIRA YOSHIMURA

Of authors who write historical fiction, James Michener may be the first to come to mind.  Ask a reader of Japanese, and Akira Yoshimura may be ichiban.  About a dozen years ago Yoshimura wrote a novel, Umi no Sairei (Festival of the Sea) based on the life of Ranald MacDonald.  It was in a magazine that FOM co-founder Mas Tomita read a serialized version which inspired Tomita’s interest in Ranald.  It refers to MacDonald’s birthplace correctly as Ft. George.  Mas Tomita had no idea that Ft. George was another name for Ft. Astoria until Bruce Berney asked the Japanese businessman’s organization, Shokookai of Portland, to pay half the cost of the birthplace monument.  not only did Tomita give support to the project, he telephoned Berney to say, “Let’s start a Friends of MacDonald organization.”

Now, you’ll be glad to learn that former FOM chairman, Dr. Stephen Kohl who teaches Japanese language and literature at the University of Oregon, has agreed with Yoshimura to translate Umi no Sairei.  Some of us non-kanji readers are very eager for its publication.

A letter from our Kyoto correspondent, Yuji Aisaka, reports that Yoshimura has an article on MacDonald in the February 1998 issue of Captain [ カペタン ].

*****

MEMBERSHIP REPORT

Unpaid former members names have been purged from our database.  Instead of 150 members – which we once claimed – we now can boast of about forty [many include spouses].  From Oregon, there are about 20; Washington, 14; and one each from Canada, Japan, Michigan, Georgia, California, and Indiana.  Strangely, none are named MacDonald.

We need you, our members, to help recruit new members — others who are interested in Japanese friendship activities.  Please ask for new membership packets (pamphlet, return envelope, a newsletter back copy, and two post cards).  Write to Friends of MacDonald, c/o Clatsop County Historical Society, 1618 Exchange Street, Astoria, OR  97103.

*****

BIRTHDAY PARTY

Fifteen Clatsop County FOM members and friends met for lunch at Golden Star Chinese restaurant in Astoria on MacDonald’s birthday, February 3rd.  Sharing the Happy Birthday song with Ranald, Bruce Berney was served a ball of sticky rice topped with a birthday candle.  FOM secretary Mike Seaman spoke about his year as a student of Waseda University in the 1970’s and his former job of property manager for several Japanese corporations in Los Angeles.  He now is commercial properties specialist for AREA Properties real estate firm in Astoria.  Following lunch, they reconvened at the Birthplace Monument to leave floral offerings.

*****

WASHINGTON SECRETARY OF STATE

In September we received a letter from Washington Secretary of State Ralph Munro stating: “I do want you to know that we are actively pursuing the preservation of the cabin where Ranald MacDonald spent the closing days of his life.  As you may know, it is located across the valley from the grave site in Northeastern Washington State.  Our historic preservation people and our heritage resources people are now collaborating as to how we can best preserve this cabin.  Although the building is pretty far gone, I believe we will be able to put together a program that will gain the support of the legislature.”

We wrote a letter of support, but as yet have not heard of any outcome.  Washington members may wish to inquire.  Munro’s phone number is 360-902-4151; his address is PO Box 40220, Olympia, WA  98504-0220.

*****

BOOK REVEALS STORY OF NORTHWEST ADVENTURER

Such was the headline of the review of Jo Ann Roe’s new book about Ranald MacDonald as featured in North American Post, the Seattle Japanese/English newspaper.  its editor, Kamilla Kuroda McClellend attended the September FOM membership meeting at Portland where Jo Ann Roe was presented a framed copy of the cover of the book Ranald MacDonald: Pacific Rim Adventurer by Washington State University Press publicist Beth DeWeese.    Jo Ann Roe reports the book is selling well.  It is reviewed in the Fall 1997 issue of Oregon Historical Society Quarterly, pages 375-377.  It notes that the author is a member of Friends of MacDonald.  The book and the review together give our organization long-lasting, valuable publicity.

*****

HISTORICAL SOCIETY HONORS BERNEY

Clatsop County Historical Society presented a framed expression of esteem to Bruce Berney at its annual membership luncheon in January at Astoria Country Club.  The Daily Astorian reported that :  “Jeff Smith, executive director of the society said the award marked Berney’s work as a librarian, his efforts on historic preservation and his service on the society’s Friends of Ranald MacDonald committee, which promotes international understanding.”

*****

JIM MOCKFORD IS NEW FOM CHAIRMAN

Members attending the meeting in September selected Bruce Berney, chairman; Michael Seaman, secretary; and Barbara Peeples, publicist/recruitment.  Unfortunately, two months later Bruce suffered sudden hearing loss.  Unable to use the telephone, re resigned as chairman, but volunteered to continue being active as FOM archivist and membership clerk.  Jim Mockford has agreed to be chairman during this meaningful 150th anniversary year.  Formerly Japanese language teacher at Camas High School, he now is a Japanese affairs consultant working with high technology businesses.  He and Mas Tomita were good friends and worked closely on many projects.

*****

>.>.>.>.>  CHAIRMAN’S CORNER <.<.<.<.<

It was on June 27, 1848, as the whaling ship PLYMOUTH lay off the coast of Hokkaido, about five miles away from the nearest island, that Captain Edwards received the request from Ranald MacDonald to leave the ship.  The had prepared for this adventure by rigging a small boat for sailing and stowing in it provisions for about thirty days:  a quadrant for observations, a box of books, stationary, and a few clothes.  Then into the launch stepped young Ranald, and while the crew shouted “God bless you Mac,” he dipped a small white flag in salute to the Stars and Stripes and parted ways from his friends for Japan.

This summer, on Saturday, June 27, exactly 150 years from the date that MacDonald’s adventure began, I would like to invite FOM members and friends to join in a reenactment of this historic passage on board the brig LADY WASHINGTON during its interbay sailing from Aberdeen to Westport, Washington.  As the new chairman of FOM and a member of the Advisory Council of Grays Harbor Historic Seaport, I propose a cooperative project between these two historical societies with important ties to maritime history and early US-Japan relations.  Further information will be forthcoming as we get closer to the date of our commemorative launching of MacDonald’s boat and salute to Ranald’s “Japan story of adventure!”  To make an early reservation on the passenger list for the June 27 sailing, contact the Gray’s Harbor Historic Seaport office at 1-800-532-LADY.

~~ Jim Mockford, FOM Chairman

*****

Gates Ajar — Spring 1994

Sunday, April 10th, 1994
The text of this article is reprinted from the Dictionary of Canadian Biography, (Volume XII) 1891-1900, thanks to the great kindness of its author, David H. Wallace, and of the publisher, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

MACDONALD, RANALD, adventurer, teacher, explorer, businessman, and author; b. 3 Feb. 1824 in Fort George (Astoria, Oreg.), eldest son of Archibald McDonald*, an HBC fur trader, and Chinook Indian princess Raven (Sunday), daughter of Chief Comcomly; d. unmarried 24 Aug. 1894 in Toroda, Wash.

Ranald MacDonald’s mother died shortly after his birth, and he was raised by his stepmother, Jane Klyne. After spending his early years at several Hudson’s Bay Company posts in the Columbia district, he was sent in 1834 to the Red River Academy at Fort Garry (Winnipeg) [see David Thomas Jones*]. Four years later he went to St Thomas, Upper Canada, to train in banking at a bank managed by one of his father’s friends, Edward Ermatinger*. He soon tired of this work, however, and early in 1841 he left surreptitiously to go to sea. Determined to visit the closed country of Japan, he shipped from Lahaina (Hawaii) in 1848 on the whaler Plymouth and arranged to be dropped off, appearing to be a shipwrecked sailor, near the west coast of Ezo (Hokkaido).

Taken by the Japanese authorities to Nagasaki, he made the best of his comfortable confinement in a temple room by becoming the first teacher of English in Japan, and it is as a teacher that he is best remembered there. One of his students, Enosuke Moriyama, later became a noted interpreter to the missions of Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry in 1853–54 and of Lord Elgin [Bruce*] in 1858–59.

At the end of April 1849 MacDonald was released to the American sloop of war Preble, which was visiting Nagasaki to pick up American sailors who had deserted from the whaler Lagoda. He traveled widely in Asia, Australia, and Europe before returning, shortly after his father’s death in 1853, to his family, then living in St Andrews (Saint-André-Est), Lower Canada. He remained there for about five years, during which time he became a Freemason.

In 1858 Ranald and his half-brother Allan returned to the Pacific coast, to the new colony of British Columbia. They set up a packing business between Port Douglas (Douglas), at the head of Little Harrison Lake and the Fraser River gold-mines, and ran a ferry across the Fraser at Lillooet. Their younger brother Benjamin later joined them. In 1861–62 Ranald MacDonald and Johnston George Hillbride Barnston, whose families were connected through marriage, set up the Bentinck Arm and Fraser River Road Company to service the new mines in the Caribou district. The route for this road was a pack-trail, running from the site of present-day Bella Coola to the Fraser River near Fort Alexandria (Alexandria, B.C.). The enterprise was not completed, however, because of financial difficulties. In 1864 MacDonald and Barnston’s younger brother Alexander joined the Vancouver Island Exploring Expedition [see Robert Brown]. On this expedition, which crossed the largely unexplored interior of Vancouver Island four times, MacDonald participated in the discovery of vast stands of prime timber, the Sooke gold-fields, and a large coalfield on Browns River near Comox. The next year he led a government-sponsored expedition to explore for minerals in the Horsefly area of the Caribou.

MacDonald spent the following decade in the Caribou district, exploring, and at his ranch on Hat Creek. He was also an employee of Barnard’s Express and Stage Line [see Francis Jones Barnard*] and later of Bonaparte House, the hotel run by Charles Augustus Semlin* and Philip Parke at Cache Creek. In 1875 he assisted his cousin Christina MacDonald in her trading operation at Kamloops. He finally retired to a log cabin close to the home of Christina’s brother Donald near Fort Colvile (near Colville, Wash.), where his own father had developed a large farm for the HBC during the 1830s.

While in retirement, MacDonald tried to find a publisher for his account of his visit to Japan. The manuscript was edited by Malcolm McLeod, who in 1872 had published Archibald McDonald’s Peace River journal, and several drafts were submitted to Canadian, American, and British publishers. A proposal for publication in Montreal under the title “A Canadian in Japan” fell through in 1892 because of a lack of subscriptions, but a revised version which McLeod prepared the following year finally appeared in 1923.

*****

A portion of Ranald MacDonald’s original account of his visit to Japan is preserved in Malcolm McLeod’s papers at PABC, Add. mss 1249, along with one of the three manuscript copies of McLeod’s final 1893 edition, “Japan: story of adventure of Ranald MacDonald, first teacher of English in Japan, A.D. 1848–49.” The other surviving copy (the one McLeod returned to MacDonald) is held by the Eastern Wash. State Hist. Soc. (Spokane), which published it in 1923 as Ranald MacDonald: the narrative of his early life on the Columbia under the Hudsons Bay Companys regime; of his experiences in the Pacific whale fishery; and of his great adventure to Japan; with a sketch of his later life on the western frontier, 1824–1894, ed. W. S. Lewis and Naojiro Murakami. A Japanese translation of the Narrative prepared by Toruo Tomita, MakudonarudoNihon Kaisoki”, appeared in Tokyo in 1979.

MacDonald is also the author of Bentinck Arm and Fraser River Road Company, Limited, prospectus (Victoria, 1862), prepared in collaboration with his partner, Johnston George Hillbride Barnston.

Japan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Repository (Tokyo), Zoku Tsushin Zenran Ruishu (coil. of docs. from the time of the Tokugawa government), “Beikoku Hyomin no Geisen Nagasaki-ko ni Torai Ikken” (record of the visit to Nagasaki of the Preble, 1849) and “Kits Kaigan Hyochaku no Beikokujin Nagasaki Goso a Ikken, 1848–1849” (record of Ranald MacDonald and the Lagoda seamen). PABC, Add. mss 794, esp. Vancouver Island Exploring Expedition journals of Robert Brown and of Ranald MacDonald. [Robert Brown], Vancouver Island; exploration, 1864 (Victoria, [1865]). “An interesting visitor,” Ottawa Daily Citizen, 1 Sept. 1888; repr. in Daily NewsAdvertiser (Vancouver), 15 Sept. 1888. Frederick Whymper, Travel and adventure in the territory of Alaska, formerly Russian Americanow ceded to the United Statesand in various other parts of the north Pacific (London, 1868).

British Colonist (Victoria), 1858–60, continued as Daily British Colonist, 1860–64, and Daily Colonist, September 1894. Cariboo Sentinel (Barkerville, B.C.), 12 June 1865. China Mail (Hong Kong), 1 May 1849. Morning Oregonian (Portland), 12 Feb. 1891. SpokesmanReview (Spokane), 31 Aug. 1894. DAB. J. E. Ferris, “Ranald MacDonald, the sailor boy who visited Japan,” Pacific Northwest Quarterly (Seattle, Wash.), 48 (1957): 13–16; “Ranald MacDonald’s monument, Toroda Creek, state of Washington,” BCHQ, 15 (1951): 223–27. Province (Vancouver), 18 Nov. 1963. Shunzo Sakamaki, “Japan and the United States, 1790–1853,” Asiatic Soc. of Japan, Trans., 2nd ser., 18 (1939): 44–49. Vancouver Daily Province, 20 May 1928.

© 2000 University of Toronto/Université Laval
NOTE:  A second edition of Ranald’s Narrative was published in 1990 by the Oregon Historical Society Press with support from FOM and Epson Portland, Inc.  It is available from the OHS Press, 1200 S.W. Park Ave., Portland, OR  97205, at $30 plus shipping. [U.S. funds only.]
*****
Chinook Tribe Seeks Information …
Edna Miller, secretary of the Chinook Indian Tribe, has asked that FOM share with the Tribe information about Ranald MacDonald, half-Scot, half-Indian, and grandson of legendary Chinook Chieftain Comcomly.  FOM Chairman Bruce Berney has offered copies of our publications and suggested a newsletter exchange.
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Tour Highlights:
Dramatic Scenery, Historic Sites, Good Company, Great Fun …

The vastness of Eastern Washington is awe-inspiring.  The air is pungent with the scent of pine and sage, the land rolls with breathtaking skies.  Travelers will visit three unusual museums:  the Native Cultures Collection at Cheney Cowles Museum, Spokane; the architecturally exciting Yakima Nation Indian museum; and the charming Colville Museum, the heart of an historic complex.
We’ll learn more about Indian culture with an Indian feast — and see pictographs and petroglyphs painted and carved thousands of years ago.  We’ll see gigantic Grand Coulee Dam, a working gold mine, a winery …
We will visit, finally, the house in which Ranald MacDonald died and the lands he knew, pausing for a centennial tribute at his well-marked grave site near the Canadian border.
The tour is being organized in cooperation with the Oregon Historical Society , which will also invite its members to participate.  TO ASSURE YOUR PLACE on the tour, complete and mail the special FOM advance reservation form in this newsletter.
*****
A Visit to Toroda
by Prof. Steve Kohl, Ph.D.
(FOM Vice Chair Steve Kohl, a member of the Department of Asian Languages and Literature at the University of Oregon, has long been interested in the Ranald MacDonald story.  Steve will lead our Tour to Toroda.  The following is his account of his visit there last summer …)

RANALD MacDONALD died at Toroda on the Canadian border of Washington.  Eva Emory Dye romantically and erroneously describes him passing away at his home at Fort Colville near Kettle Falls.  The actual circumstances of his death were more dramatically poignant than that.  Away from home, visiting his niece, Jennie Lynch, he died in her arms saying, “Sayonara, my dear, sayonara.”

Last August we drove through the Okanogan country, passing through Kettle Falls, crossing the Columbia, camping at Curlew Lake, and going on to Toroda to visit the site of MacDonald’s grave on a bluff high above Kettle River.  In many ways the area has greatly changed since MacDonald passed through here on his last journey, and in that process of change our sense of history has changed as some things are lost and other things gain heightened importance.

MacDonald spent his final years at Fort Colville where his father had been chief factor half a century earlier.  MacDonald evidently cared a great deal about preserving that legacy in his father’s memory.  He seems to have found contentment during those final years of his life.  He is quoted as saying, “I yearn for nothing more than to live according to the whims of my nature.  If I need meat for my dogs, in the foothills there is plenty of game.  If it is flour that I lack, there is a store at the nearest settlement.  My books furnish diversion, and in my solitude I am free to write and meditate.”  Today, neither fort nor homestead remain; all were flooded by the backwaters of Grand Coulee Dam.

As we crossed the 75 miles or so from Kettle Falls to Toroda, i could not help but wonder if these mountains and meadows are any different from what they were when Mac made his last journey in August of 1894.  He surely passed by Curlew Lake and perhaps camped there as we did, watching the sun set and twilight gather over the Okanogan.

When Lewis and Murakami were editing MacDonald’s Narrative in 1923, they described the site as a neglected Indian cemetery.  Today it is a neatly fenced plot which includes also the graves of Jennie Lynch, Nellie Stanton and other family members.  The mountains and rivers have not changed at all.  On a clear August morning the hills are green and dotted with pines and the river flows through the valley below, a remarkably lovely location.

Changes, of course, have been many.  MacDonald went to Japan hoping to open the doors of commerce with that country.  Today, as we see the vast amount of commerce – the wheat, cattle, timber, potatoes, fish and fruit of the Columbia River basin that goes to Japan, and when we see the Toyotas, televisions and computers that comes from Japan — we can appreciate the extent to which MacDonald’s dream of commerce and friendship between our two countries has been accomplished.  As we near the 100th anniversary of MacDonald’s death, it seems appropriate to honor this man of vision and humanity.

*****

What FOM’s Been Doing …

AT FORT VANCOUVER Boy Scouts from Hyogo Prefecture in Japan joined Washington State representatives to rededicate the Friendship Monument erected in 1988 to honor three Japanese sailors – “shipwrecked” sea-drifters rescued and brought to the Fort in 1833 on orders of Dr. McLaughlin.  Chairman Mas Tomita represented FOM.

AT THE OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY FOM was represented at the August 6th opening of an OHS exhibit about the issei, Japanese pioneers who came to Oregon in the late 19th and early 10th centuries.  A special FOM flyer was developed for the opening.  FOM member George Azumano was among those instrumental in developing the popular exhibit, a joint effort of the japanese American National Museum, Oregon Japanese Americans and OHS.

IN PORTLAND FOM was host to a film crew from KTN-TV/Nagasaki, which created a special documentary about Ranald MacDonald as part of the stations 25th anniversary celebration.  Portland-area Friends met for dinner with the film crew.  FOM Vice Chairman Bruce Berney entertained the group in Astoria.  The film-makers also traveled to Vancouver and Victoria, B.C.; Winnipeg; Toronto; Washington, D.C.; Republic and Spokane, Washington, and Lahaina and Honolulu, Hawaii.  A copy of the Japanese-language production will be placed in FOM archives.

FOM/PORTLAND this month also greeted visitors from Japan led by FOM Vice Chair/Japan Masaki Takahashi.  The group was making an early centennial pilgrimage to Toroda.

IN JAPAN – Masaki Takahashi, who spearheaded development of the Rishiri monument memorializing Ranald MacDonald, is the new Vice Chairman/Japan for FOM.   He will serve as liaison between FOM/US and leaders of four Japanese chapters, who are Dr. Obama, Nagasaki; Mr. Nishiya, Rishiri; Mr. Aisaka, Kansai; and Mr. Kawasaki, Tokyo.  The Japanese groups have published a number of MacDonald studies.

AT THE BANK – Chairman Mas Tomita reported on FOM’s fiscal year-end status during the November meeting, noting a 12% increase in current paid membership.  income from memberships exceeded budget projects by $231; resale items were up $8, donations up $450, and luncheon receipts up $452, for a total increase in income of $1,181.  Expenses overall decreased, down from a budgeted $1800 to $1265, primarily because of reduced printing expenses.

*

Gates Ajar – Spring 1992

Monday, April 27th, 1992

GLOSSARY USEFUL AID TO SCHOLARS ~Stephen Kohl, Ph.D.

Ranald MacDonald’s account of his stay in Japan was written from memory many years after the experience.  Many of his Japanese artifacts were lost; the one concrete thing brought back from Japan and appended to his account of his adventures is his glossary of Japanese words.

We are fortunate that Professor Kenji Sonoda has recently taken the trouble to reconstruct the list of words as MacDonald originally had them.  It is understandable and inevitable that misspellings slipped into the list after Malcolm McLeod worked it over twice.  One of the most difficult things in the world is to work with words in a language with which one is not familiar.  One would suppose that these discrepancies would have come to light in 1923 when Lewis and Marakami assembled the manuscript we have today.  Nevertheless, we now have Professor Sonoda’s reconstruction which will stand as a valuable linguistic tool.

We have relatively few sources available to tell us how Japanese words were actually pronounced in pre-modern times.  As Professor Sonoda points out, the major sources are Carl Peter Thunberg (1743 – 1828), Walter Henry Medhurst (1796-1857) and Ranald MacDonald.  There are important differences in these lists which are instructive.  Since Medhurst got his words from a dictionary, he provides us with official readings as opposed to the way people actually spoke the words.  Thunberg compiled his list on the basis of how he heard people say the words.  He traveled extensively in Japan, but from west to east, from Nagasaki to Edo and back.  Ranald MacDonald also compiled his list on the basis of what he heard, but he traveled the entire length of the country from the northernmost tip of Hokkaido to Nagasaki in the south.  Although much of his journey was by boat, they put to shore at regular intervals so that his vocabulary will surely show a variety of dialects not found in either Medhurst or Thunberg.

The important thing, of course, is having an accurate version of what Ranald MacDonald heard and recorded.  Professor Sonoda has given us that.

. . . . .