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MacDonald Appears in Recent Books

Tuesday, October 18th, 1994


Robert Brown and the Vancouver Island Exploring Expedition.  Edited by John Hayman, Univ. of British Columbia Press, 1989.  204 pgs., $31.95

One of Ranald MacDonald’s ventures after he returned to land and the Canadian Northwest was his membership on the Vancouver island Exploring Expedition led by Robert Brown.  Brown’s journal of the exploration, a 4 1/2 month criss-cross of the island as far north as Comox, reports the discovery of the Leech River gold fields and of a coal seem on Browns River.

The book, Volume 8 of the Recollections of the Pioneers of British Columbia, includes numerous references to Ranald as well as a picture of him and Frederick Whymper, the expedition artist, coming spectacularly downriver on a raft.  Whymper’s illustrations of expedition activities and landmarks are used lavishly in the book.

Ranald’s own original journal of the expedition, scratched out over his weeks in the field, is in the Provincial Archives of British Columbia.  It supplements some of the official reporting done by Brown in his account.

The editor refers to MacDonald as “undoubtedly the most colorful and entertaining of the group … At forty, he was the oldest of the explorers, but his persistent high spirits made him, according to Brown, a popular member of the group”.  One rainy night, Brown quotes MacDonald as saying, ” ‘ … the devil was whipping his wife’ and, if we may judge from his frequent allusions to that gentleman, he appears to be on terms of considerable intimacy …”

In addition to giving readers as account of life on the island as the expedition found it in 1864, this book gives us a rare glimpse of Ranald as seen by his contemporaries.

An Ocean Between Us:  The Changing Relationship of Japan and the United States, Told in Four Stories from the Life of an American Town.  By Evelyn Iritani.  Wm. Morrow & Co.; 272 pgs., $23.00

Evelyn Iritani, daughter of a second-generation Japanese-American father and a born-and-reared-in-Japan mother, has covered Asian-related economic, political and cultural matters for the Seattle Post-Intelligencer since 1987.  Her book reflects both her birth and her vocation; it is a first-hand look at the impact of the Japanese presence in Port Angeles, Washington, and reaction to it.  Her “Four Stories” are about four situations involving Japan-U.S. relations, the first of them telling of the “drifters” enslaved by the Makah Indians (later) rescued through the efforts of the Hudson’s Bay Co. in 1834.  She expands on the bewhiskered and fanciful fiction that Ranald MacDonald shared school-days with the trio by stating that he “befriended the Japanese sailors and traded English lessons for schooling in Japanese.”  (In fact, of course, Ranald briefly attended John Ball’s school, held from November 1832~February 1833; the three Japanese youngsters were students of Cyrus Shepherd in the fall of 1834.)  Another reference to Ranald says he departed via “rowboat” from the whaler in which he had sailed to Japan; Ranald described his craft as “custom-built” for the captain, with sails and a mast.

However, Iritani’s personal insights and interviews with contemporaries make her book well worth reading.


Gates Ajar — FALL 1994 – Centennial Tributes

Tuesday, October 18th, 1994


” … Through his great achievement Mr. MacDonald has been remembered by Japanese even today, one hundred years after his death, and is still remembered in the hearts of many Americans and Japanese as a token of the long-standing US-Japan relationship.”

~~  Takahiro Yokomishi, Governor of Hokkaido, Japan

” … On the commemoration of the centennial of the death of Ranald MacDonald, I would like to express my great respects to him, who ventured to land on the shore of Japan in 1848 at the risk of his life in order to open “the Gates of Brass” and loved dearly by the Japanese people.”

~~ Torao Tomita, Professor Emeritus, Rikkyo University; translator of Ranald MacDonald’s Original Narrative

“… I join Friends of MacDonald honoring Mr. MacDonald’s vast contributions to establishing an important friendship between the Japanese and English-speaking peoples.  That early fascination with the Japanese culture played not only a critical historical role in the future relationships with businesses and governments but also (in) illuminating the beauty and customs of Japan.”

~~ Hon. Barbara Roberts, Governor of Oregon

” … Ranald MacDonald personified the American pioneering spirit.  Seeking adventure and pursuing his vision of a prosperous trade relationship between the United States and Japan, MacDonald set out on his historic visit to our island neighbor … His vision has led to great benefit for our nation.”

~~ Hon. Mark O. Hatfield, U.S. Senator/Oregon

” … I strongly hope that this event will serve as a reminder of how strong the ties between the State of Washington and Japan are and how we all cherish the friendly relationship at the present time.”

~~ Masaki Saito, Consulate General of Japan

” … As Canadians we are happy to join in marking his career, which has drawn all three of our nations closer together.”

~~ Jean Murray Cole, Alfred O.C. Cole

” … The Society is pleased and honored to be associated with the Friends of MacDonald and its founders, mas Tomita and Bruce Berney …”

~~ Karen Broenneke, Executive Director Clatsop County historical Society

” … Keeping Ranald MacDonald’s inspirational words on international friendship in mind, and enabling Hyogo and Washington to take increasingly important roles as gateways between Hyogo and Washington, I would like to further deepen friendship …”

~~  Toshitami Kaihara, Governor of Hyogo Prefecture

[To FOM Chairman Mas Tomita] –

” … Thank you … for making the In Search of Ranald MacDonald trip and of the most interesting and vital trips that I’ve had the pleasure to put together.  Your interest in and connection with the subject of MacDonald in all his many facets made for a truly magical trip.  It is a gray morning in Portland today and it seems quite a stretch to think of all that eastern Washington sunshine.  I enjoyed being a part of this centennial observance.” ~~Adair Law, OHS managing editor/assistant to the director


Centennial messages read during the ceremonies included other distinguished persons, including Toshitami Kaihara, Governor, Hyogo Prefectural Government, Kobe, Japan; Syunsuke Tsurumi, philosopher, author of Words Spread; Akira Yoshimura, author of Festival at Sea; Masaki Takahashi, FOM Japan; Masami Obama, FOM Nagasaki; Takeyasu Morokuma; Hyroko Sonoke, FOM Japan; and a resolution by the National Council of the Japanese American Citizens League relating to recognition of Ranald MacDonald as the first American to make significant contributions toward US-Japan Relations.


Gates Ajar — FALL 1994 – TV Video Popular in Japan

Tuesday, October 18th, 1994

Nagasaki TV Video Popular

The KTN TV/Nagasaki documentary celebrating the life of Ranald MacDonald was “well received” when it was broadcast to Japanese listeners this spring, reports FOM Chairman Mas Tomita.  The documentary, produced by the station, was filmed at Oregon, Washington, Hawaii and various Canadian sites as well as in Japan.  FOM hosted the film crew at dinners in Portland and Astoria.   M. Yamamoto, director of the film, discussed the project at South Nagasaki Rotary Club meeting.

[Mr. Yamamoto sends FOM members “best regards” and “thank you” for your help during the filming trip.]


Gates Ajar — FALL 1994 Toroda Tour

Saturday, October 1st, 1994

It was a great tour to Toroda!

by Mas Tomita, FOM Chairman

IN SEARCH OF RANALD MACDONALD: AUGUST 11-14, 1994~~~ Our exciting bus tour left the Oregon Historical Center at 8:30am on Thursday, Aug. 11.  Once en route, our 22 tour participants introduced themselves and explained why they are intrigued by Ranald MacDonald.  Tour Leader, Steve Kohl and OHS Director Chet Orloff provided historical background about Ranald’s life and Northwest geology as we passed many points of interest on the way to Spokane.

We were joined at a welcome dinner in Spokane by an enthusiastic group of seven members from Seattle led by Ken Nakano.  Also joining us for dinner were Glen Mason, executive director of the Eastern Washington Historical Society, and his wife;  Ed Tsutakawa of Mukogawa Institute, a U.S. branch of a Japanese Women’s college; and Dr. Watanabe and Denny Yasuhara of the Japanese American Citizens League.  We enjoyed good food, good conversation and a video presentation.

Friday, we visited Mukogawa Institute to see its new Ranald MacDonald building, recently dedicated to his memory, and the nice display which Ed had set up in the lobby.  We then visited Cheney Cowles Museum to see its MacDonald materials.  These included Ranald’s copy of the original McLeod manuscript – based primarily on Ranald’s recollections – which was the basis for the 1923 publication of Ranald MacDonald, edited by W.S.  Lewis, then director of the Eastern Washington Historical Society, and Naojiro Murakami.   The MacDonald files are part of a collection of papers left by Lewis, who did much research on Eastern Washington history.  We could have spent the day there but had to move on.

Four hours later, we arrived at Republic and were greeted by Dick Slagle, a long-time Friends of MacDonald member.  We first visited the Stanton family farm and saw firsthand the old log cabin where, in 1894, Ranald died in the arms of his beloved niece, Jenny Lynch, saying “Sayonara, my dear, sayonara”.  We got a special feeling as we touched the wall of the cabin and looked about us at peaceful fields and hills.

We left the farm for Ranald’s grave site where, in the late afternoon breeze, some 30 people stood waiting for the ceremony to begin.  It was a beautiful and memorable ceremony.  FOM Vice Chairman Bruce Berney, as master of ceremonies, stood by Ranald’s grave, which was flanked by U.S. and Japanese flags.  A kilt-clad bagpiper from Canada opened the centennial observance with the spirited call of the pipes, reminding us of Ranald’s Scottish ancestry.  A beautiful bouquet was placed at the grave site monument by Jean Murray Cole, also from Canada and the great-great-great-granddaughter of Archibald MacDonald, Ranald’s father.  Rika Matsubara read a message from Consul-General Saito of Japan.  Takeo Terahata read a message from Hyogo Gov. Kaihara.  A JACL resolution honoring Ranald was read by Ken Nakano.  FOM Chairman Mas Tomita made a speech recognizing Ranald’s inspiration beyond time and place.

Chet Orloff presented distinguished remarks.  Local historians and families were introduced.  The bagpipe’s solemn lament concluded the wonderful gathering of about 50.

A banquet at Republic followed the ceremony and provided a great opportunity to meet local friends and historians; we all enjoyed a cool evening, a considerable contrast to the hot daytime temperatures.  We learned that Washington State Governor Mike Lowry had formally proclaimed August 12th as “Ranald MacDonald Day” and that Secretary of State Ralph Munro had paid a brief tribute to Ranald on the previous day when he visited the grave site.

On the third day of the tour we drove south and crossed Lake Roosevelt by a small ferry.  Spectacular landscapes greeted us en route to Grand Coulee Dam, Dry Falls and Yakima.  Dinner that evening at the Yakima Indian National Culture Center in Toppenish was accompanied by Indian storytelling and dancing.

The fourth and final day of the tour included another visit to the Toppenish Museum.  Then we moved on to The Dalles Dam for lunch and a visit to Indian petroglyphs which had been removed from the canyon before it was flooded.  Our final stop was at Fort Vancouver, where Ranald spent some of his boyhood.  Throughout our bus ride, each of us in turn was able to comment and share interesting information.  It was a great learning experience!

I think all of those who participated, in person or by message, for their contributions to the success of our tour.  A big “thank you” to Adair Law for coordination and arrangements and to Barbara Peeples for her help with planning.  It was a great trip in search of Ranald MacDonald.  As he said at the last of his Narrative, more than 100 years ago, “Let us hope of a better day for Peace on earth!  Good will to all men!”

Tour participants had a good time.  Their comments bode well for future travels and tours:

” … I thought it was a good trip, both memorable and profitable.  I hope the others felt the same way” – Dr. Steve Kohl, tour leader

” … All those present at the ceremony and dinner say that they had a wonderful time and look forward to a closer association between local residents and MacDonald’s far-flung friends.  The MacDonald family members involved were delighted.” – Madilane Perry, Republic [ Madilane also reports that the Ferry County Historical Society will place a MacDonald exhibit in the local library.]

” … it was one of the most enriching experiences I’ve had.” — Katie Gordon


Gates Ajar — Spring 1994

Sunday, April 10th, 1994
The text of this article is reprinted from the Dictionary of Canadian Biography, (Volume XII) 1891-1900, thanks to the great kindness of its author, David H. Wallace, and of the publisher, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

MACDONALD, RANALD, adventurer, teacher, explorer, businessman, and author; b. 3 Feb. 1824 in Fort George (Astoria, Oreg.), eldest son of Archibald McDonald*, an HBC fur trader, and Chinook Indian princess Raven (Sunday), daughter of Chief Comcomly; d. unmarried 24 Aug. 1894 in Toroda, Wash.

Ranald MacDonald’s mother died shortly after his birth, and he was raised by his stepmother, Jane Klyne. After spending his early years at several Hudson’s Bay Company posts in the Columbia district, he was sent in 1834 to the Red River Academy at Fort Garry (Winnipeg) [see David Thomas Jones*]. Four years later he went to St Thomas, Upper Canada, to train in banking at a bank managed by one of his father’s friends, Edward Ermatinger*. He soon tired of this work, however, and early in 1841 he left surreptitiously to go to sea. Determined to visit the closed country of Japan, he shipped from Lahaina (Hawaii) in 1848 on the whaler Plymouth and arranged to be dropped off, appearing to be a shipwrecked sailor, near the west coast of Ezo (Hokkaido).

Taken by the Japanese authorities to Nagasaki, he made the best of his comfortable confinement in a temple room by becoming the first teacher of English in Japan, and it is as a teacher that he is best remembered there. One of his students, Enosuke Moriyama, later became a noted interpreter to the missions of Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry in 1853–54 and of Lord Elgin [Bruce*] in 1858–59.

At the end of April 1849 MacDonald was released to the American sloop of war Preble, which was visiting Nagasaki to pick up American sailors who had deserted from the whaler Lagoda. He traveled widely in Asia, Australia, and Europe before returning, shortly after his father’s death in 1853, to his family, then living in St Andrews (Saint-André-Est), Lower Canada. He remained there for about five years, during which time he became a Freemason.

In 1858 Ranald and his half-brother Allan returned to the Pacific coast, to the new colony of British Columbia. They set up a packing business between Port Douglas (Douglas), at the head of Little Harrison Lake and the Fraser River gold-mines, and ran a ferry across the Fraser at Lillooet. Their younger brother Benjamin later joined them. In 1861–62 Ranald MacDonald and Johnston George Hillbride Barnston, whose families were connected through marriage, set up the Bentinck Arm and Fraser River Road Company to service the new mines in the Caribou district. The route for this road was a pack-trail, running from the site of present-day Bella Coola to the Fraser River near Fort Alexandria (Alexandria, B.C.). The enterprise was not completed, however, because of financial difficulties. In 1864 MacDonald and Barnston’s younger brother Alexander joined the Vancouver Island Exploring Expedition [see Robert Brown]. On this expedition, which crossed the largely unexplored interior of Vancouver Island four times, MacDonald participated in the discovery of vast stands of prime timber, the Sooke gold-fields, and a large coalfield on Browns River near Comox. The next year he led a government-sponsored expedition to explore for minerals in the Horsefly area of the Caribou.

MacDonald spent the following decade in the Caribou district, exploring, and at his ranch on Hat Creek. He was also an employee of Barnard’s Express and Stage Line [see Francis Jones Barnard*] and later of Bonaparte House, the hotel run by Charles Augustus Semlin* and Philip Parke at Cache Creek. In 1875 he assisted his cousin Christina MacDonald in her trading operation at Kamloops. He finally retired to a log cabin close to the home of Christina’s brother Donald near Fort Colvile (near Colville, Wash.), where his own father had developed a large farm for the HBC during the 1830s.

While in retirement, MacDonald tried to find a publisher for his account of his visit to Japan. The manuscript was edited by Malcolm McLeod, who in 1872 had published Archibald McDonald’s Peace River journal, and several drafts were submitted to Canadian, American, and British publishers. A proposal for publication in Montreal under the title “A Canadian in Japan” fell through in 1892 because of a lack of subscriptions, but a revised version which McLeod prepared the following year finally appeared in 1923.


A portion of Ranald MacDonald’s original account of his visit to Japan is preserved in Malcolm McLeod’s papers at PABC, Add. mss 1249, along with one of the three manuscript copies of McLeod’s final 1893 edition, “Japan: story of adventure of Ranald MacDonald, first teacher of English in Japan, A.D. 1848–49.” The other surviving copy (the one McLeod returned to MacDonald) is held by the Eastern Wash. State Hist. Soc. (Spokane), which published it in 1923 as Ranald MacDonald: the narrative of his early life on the Columbia under the Hudsons Bay Companys regime; of his experiences in the Pacific whale fishery; and of his great adventure to Japan; with a sketch of his later life on the western frontier, 1824–1894, ed. W. S. Lewis and Naojiro Murakami. A Japanese translation of the Narrative prepared by Toruo Tomita, MakudonarudoNihon Kaisoki”, appeared in Tokyo in 1979.

MacDonald is also the author of Bentinck Arm and Fraser River Road Company, Limited, prospectus (Victoria, 1862), prepared in collaboration with his partner, Johnston George Hillbride Barnston.

Japan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Repository (Tokyo), Zoku Tsushin Zenran Ruishu (coil. of docs. from the time of the Tokugawa government), “Beikoku Hyomin no Geisen Nagasaki-ko ni Torai Ikken” (record of the visit to Nagasaki of the Preble, 1849) and “Kits Kaigan Hyochaku no Beikokujin Nagasaki Goso a Ikken, 1848–1849” (record of Ranald MacDonald and the Lagoda seamen). PABC, Add. mss 794, esp. Vancouver Island Exploring Expedition journals of Robert Brown and of Ranald MacDonald. [Robert Brown], Vancouver Island; exploration, 1864 (Victoria, [1865]). “An interesting visitor,” Ottawa Daily Citizen, 1 Sept. 1888; repr. in Daily NewsAdvertiser (Vancouver), 15 Sept. 1888. Frederick Whymper, Travel and adventure in the territory of Alaska, formerly Russian Americanow ceded to the United Statesand in various other parts of the north Pacific (London, 1868).

British Colonist (Victoria), 1858–60, continued as Daily British Colonist, 1860–64, and Daily Colonist, September 1894. Cariboo Sentinel (Barkerville, B.C.), 12 June 1865. China Mail (Hong Kong), 1 May 1849. Morning Oregonian (Portland), 12 Feb. 1891. SpokesmanReview (Spokane), 31 Aug. 1894. DAB. J. E. Ferris, “Ranald MacDonald, the sailor boy who visited Japan,” Pacific Northwest Quarterly (Seattle, Wash.), 48 (1957): 13–16; “Ranald MacDonald’s monument, Toroda Creek, state of Washington,” BCHQ, 15 (1951): 223–27. Province (Vancouver), 18 Nov. 1963. Shunzo Sakamaki, “Japan and the United States, 1790–1853,” Asiatic Soc. of Japan, Trans., 2nd ser., 18 (1939): 44–49. Vancouver Daily Province, 20 May 1928.

© 2000 University of Toronto/Université Laval
NOTE:  A second edition of Ranald’s Narrative was published in 1990 by the Oregon Historical Society Press with support from FOM and Epson Portland, Inc.  It is available from the OHS Press, 1200 S.W. Park Ave., Portland, OR  97205, at $30 plus shipping. [U.S. funds only.]
Chinook Tribe Seeks Information …
Edna Miller, secretary of the Chinook Indian Tribe, has asked that FOM share with the Tribe information about Ranald MacDonald, half-Scot, half-Indian, and grandson of legendary Chinook Chieftain Comcomly.  FOM Chairman Bruce Berney has offered copies of our publications and suggested a newsletter exchange.
Tour Highlights:
Dramatic Scenery, Historic Sites, Good Company, Great Fun …

The vastness of Eastern Washington is awe-inspiring.  The air is pungent with the scent of pine and sage, the land rolls with breathtaking skies.  Travelers will visit three unusual museums:  the Native Cultures Collection at Cheney Cowles Museum, Spokane; the architecturally exciting Yakima Nation Indian museum; and the charming Colville Museum, the heart of an historic complex.
We’ll learn more about Indian culture with an Indian feast — and see pictographs and petroglyphs painted and carved thousands of years ago.  We’ll see gigantic Grand Coulee Dam, a working gold mine, a winery …
We will visit, finally, the house in which Ranald MacDonald died and the lands he knew, pausing for a centennial tribute at his well-marked grave site near the Canadian border.
The tour is being organized in cooperation with the Oregon Historical Society , which will also invite its members to participate.  TO ASSURE YOUR PLACE on the tour, complete and mail the special FOM advance reservation form in this newsletter.
A Visit to Toroda
by Prof. Steve Kohl, Ph.D.
(FOM Vice Chair Steve Kohl, a member of the Department of Asian Languages and Literature at the University of Oregon, has long been interested in the Ranald MacDonald story.  Steve will lead our Tour to Toroda.  The following is his account of his visit there last summer …)

RANALD MacDONALD died at Toroda on the Canadian border of Washington.  Eva Emory Dye romantically and erroneously describes him passing away at his home at Fort Colville near Kettle Falls.  The actual circumstances of his death were more dramatically poignant than that.  Away from home, visiting his niece, Jennie Lynch, he died in her arms saying, “Sayonara, my dear, sayonara.”

Last August we drove through the Okanogan country, passing through Kettle Falls, crossing the Columbia, camping at Curlew Lake, and going on to Toroda to visit the site of MacDonald’s grave on a bluff high above Kettle River.  In many ways the area has greatly changed since MacDonald passed through here on his last journey, and in that process of change our sense of history has changed as some things are lost and other things gain heightened importance.

MacDonald spent his final years at Fort Colville where his father had been chief factor half a century earlier.  MacDonald evidently cared a great deal about preserving that legacy in his father’s memory.  He seems to have found contentment during those final years of his life.  He is quoted as saying, “I yearn for nothing more than to live according to the whims of my nature.  If I need meat for my dogs, in the foothills there is plenty of game.  If it is flour that I lack, there is a store at the nearest settlement.  My books furnish diversion, and in my solitude I am free to write and meditate.”  Today, neither fort nor homestead remain; all were flooded by the backwaters of Grand Coulee Dam.

As we crossed the 75 miles or so from Kettle Falls to Toroda, i could not help but wonder if these mountains and meadows are any different from what they were when Mac made his last journey in August of 1894.  He surely passed by Curlew Lake and perhaps camped there as we did, watching the sun set and twilight gather over the Okanogan.

When Lewis and Murakami were editing MacDonald’s Narrative in 1923, they described the site as a neglected Indian cemetery.  Today it is a neatly fenced plot which includes also the graves of Jennie Lynch, Nellie Stanton and other family members.  The mountains and rivers have not changed at all.  On a clear August morning the hills are green and dotted with pines and the river flows through the valley below, a remarkably lovely location.

Changes, of course, have been many.  MacDonald went to Japan hoping to open the doors of commerce with that country.  Today, as we see the vast amount of commerce – the wheat, cattle, timber, potatoes, fish and fruit of the Columbia River basin that goes to Japan, and when we see the Toyotas, televisions and computers that comes from Japan — we can appreciate the extent to which MacDonald’s dream of commerce and friendship between our two countries has been accomplished.  As we near the 100th anniversary of MacDonald’s death, it seems appropriate to honor this man of vision and humanity.


What FOM’s Been Doing …

AT FORT VANCOUVER Boy Scouts from Hyogo Prefecture in Japan joined Washington State representatives to rededicate the Friendship Monument erected in 1988 to honor three Japanese sailors – “shipwrecked” sea-drifters rescued and brought to the Fort in 1833 on orders of Dr. McLaughlin.  Chairman Mas Tomita represented FOM.

AT THE OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY FOM was represented at the August 6th opening of an OHS exhibit about the issei, Japanese pioneers who came to Oregon in the late 19th and early 10th centuries.  A special FOM flyer was developed for the opening.  FOM member George Azumano was among those instrumental in developing the popular exhibit, a joint effort of the japanese American National Museum, Oregon Japanese Americans and OHS.

IN PORTLAND FOM was host to a film crew from KTN-TV/Nagasaki, which created a special documentary about Ranald MacDonald as part of the stations 25th anniversary celebration.  Portland-area Friends met for dinner with the film crew.  FOM Vice Chairman Bruce Berney entertained the group in Astoria.  The film-makers also traveled to Vancouver and Victoria, B.C.; Winnipeg; Toronto; Washington, D.C.; Republic and Spokane, Washington, and Lahaina and Honolulu, Hawaii.  A copy of the Japanese-language production will be placed in FOM archives.

FOM/PORTLAND this month also greeted visitors from Japan led by FOM Vice Chair/Japan Masaki Takahashi.  The group was making an early centennial pilgrimage to Toroda.

IN JAPAN – Masaki Takahashi, who spearheaded development of the Rishiri monument memorializing Ranald MacDonald, is the new Vice Chairman/Japan for FOM.   He will serve as liaison between FOM/US and leaders of four Japanese chapters, who are Dr. Obama, Nagasaki; Mr. Nishiya, Rishiri; Mr. Aisaka, Kansai; and Mr. Kawasaki, Tokyo.  The Japanese groups have published a number of MacDonald studies.

AT THE BANK – Chairman Mas Tomita reported on FOM’s fiscal year-end status during the November meeting, noting a 12% increase in current paid membership.  income from memberships exceeded budget projects by $231; resale items were up $8, donations up $450, and luncheon receipts up $452, for a total increase in income of $1,181.  Expenses overall decreased, down from a budgeted $1800 to $1265, primarily because of reduced printing expenses.